top of page

Group

Public·15 members
Dylan Hughes
Dylan Hughes

How Hooked Can Help You Design Products that Make Users Addicted


Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products - A Book Review




Have you ever wondered why some products are so addictive that you can't put them down? Why do you check your email, Facebook, or Instagram several times a day? Why do you play Candy Crush, Fortnite, or Among Us for hours on end? Why do you use Google, Amazon, or Netflix for all your online needs?




Hooked How To Build Habitforming Products Epub 31


DOWNLOAD: https://www.google.com/url?q=https%3A%2F%2Fgohhs.com%2F2udfeH&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AOvVaw1cgj2t-LEW6Vdpi7ryBmst



If you want to learn the secrets behind these habit-forming products, then you should read Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal. In this book, Eyal reveals the Hook Model, a four-step process that successful companies use to create products that capture and retain users' attention. He also explains how you can apply the Hook Model to your own product, whether it's a website, an app, a game, or a service.


In this article, I will review Hooked and summarize its main points. I will also share my opinion on the book and its ethical implications. By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of how products influence our behavior and how you can use that knowledge to create better products for yourself and your customers.


Introduction




Nir Eyal is a former Stanford lecturer and a behavioral design expert. He has consulted for many tech companies, such as Facebook, Twitter, Slack, and LinkedIn. He is also the author of Indistractable: How to Control Your Attention and Choose Your Life, a book about how to overcome distractions and focus on what matters.


In Hooked, Eyal draws from his years of research, consulting, and practical experience to explain the Hook Model, a four-step process that successful companies use to create products that people can't stop using. He argues that these products create habits in users by tapping into their psychological needs and emotions. He also shows how you can apply the Hook Model to your own product, regardless of your industry or niche.


The Hook Model consists of four steps: Trigger, Action, Variable Reward, and Investment. Each step is designed to increase user engagement and loyalty. Eyal illustrates each step with examples from popular products, such as Instagram, Pinterest, Spotify, and more. He also provides practical tips and exercises for applying each step to your own product.


What is the Hook Model?




The Hook Model is a framework that describes how products create habits in users. A habit is a behavior that is done with little or no conscious thought. Habits are powerful because they shape our preferences, influence our decisions, and affect our lives.


Eyal defines a habit-forming product as one that solves a user's problem by creating a connection between the user's problem (the internal trigger) and the product's solution (the external trigger). The product also provides enough value (the variable reward) to motivate the user to take action (the action) repeatedly. Finally, the product encourages the user to invest in the product (the investment), which increases the user's commitment and loyalty.


The Hook Model is based on the idea that habits are formed through a cycle of cues, routines, and rewards. This idea was popularized by Charles Duhigg in his book The Power of Habit. Eyal builds on this idea by adding a fourth element: investment. He argues that investment is crucial for creating habits because it increases the likelihood of future use and creates a feedback loop that reinforces the habit.


Why is the Hook Model important?




The Hook Model is important because it helps you create products that people love and use regularly. By creating habits in users, you can increase user retention, engagement, and revenue. You can also reduce your dependence on costly advertising or aggressive messaging, since your product becomes its own marketing channel.


Eyal claims that habit-forming products have several advantages over non-habit-forming products. They are:



  • Higher customer lifetime value: Habit-forming products generate more revenue from existing customers, since they use the product more frequently and for longer periods of time.



  • Greater pricing flexibility: Habit-forming products can charge higher prices or change their pricing models without losing customers, since customers are less sensitive to price changes when they are hooked to a product.



  • Supercharged growth: Habit-forming products benefit from word-of-mouth and viral effects, since customers are more likely to recommend or share a product that they use habitually.



  • Competitive advantage: Habit-forming products create barriers to entry and switching costs for competitors, since customers are less willing to try or switch to alternative products when they are hooked to a product.



How to apply the Hook Model to your product?




To apply the Hook Model to your product, you need to understand your users and their problems. You need to identify the internal triggers that motivate them to seek a solution, the external triggers that prompt them to use your product, the actions that they take to use your product, the variable rewards that they receive from using your product, and the investments that they make in your product.


Eyal suggests that you use the following questions to guide your application of the Hook Model:



  • What do users really want? What pain are they seeking to alleviate or what pleasure are they seeking to obtain?



  • What brings users to your service? What cues or prompts make them think of your product as a solution?



  • What is the simplest action users take in anticipation of reward? What is the minimum effort required to get started?



  • Are users fulfilled by the reward yet left wanting more? What types of rewards are most engaging and satisfying?



  • What "bit of work" do users invest in your product? How do users increase their commitment and loyalty?



Eyal also provides a template for creating a habit-forming canvas, which is a visual representation of your Hook Model. You can use this canvas to map out your product's hooks and test them with real users. You can find the template and other resources on his website: https://www.nirandfar.com/hooked/.


The Four Steps of the Hook Model




In this section, I will explain each step of the Hook Model in more detail and provide some examples from popular products.


Trigger




A trigger is a cue or a prompt that initiates a behavior. Triggers can be external or internal. External triggers are stimuli that come from outside the user, such as an email, a notification, a button, or an advertisement. Internal triggers are stimuli that come from within the user, such as an emotion, a thought, a memory, or a need.


The goal of a trigger is to activate the user's motivation and drive them to take action. A trigger should be clear, relevant, timely, and actionable. A trigger should also match the user's internal trigger, which is the underlying reason why they want to use your product.


External triggers




External triggers are the most common and obvious way to get users to use your product. They are often used in the early stages of user acquisition and habit formation, when users are not yet familiar with your product or have not yet formed a strong association between their internal trigger and your product.


Some examples of external triggers are:



  • Emails: Emails are one of the most effective ways to communicate with users and remind them of your product's value proposition. For example, Duolingo sends emails to users who have not practiced their language skills for a while, encouraging them to resume their learning.



Internal triggers




Internal triggers are the ultimate goal of a habit-forming product. They are the psychological drivers that motivate users to seek a solution to their problem or need. Internal triggers are often negative emotions, such as boredom, loneliness, frustration, anxiety, or fear. These emotions create a discomfort that users want to escape or relieve.


Some examples of internal triggers are:



  • Boredom: Boredom is a state of low arousal and dissatisfaction that makes users seek stimulation and entertainment. For example, YouTube, Netflix, and TikTok are products that cater to users who are bored and want to watch something interesting or funny.



  • Loneliness: Loneliness is a feeling of social isolation and lack of connection that makes users seek companionship and belonging. For example, Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat are products that cater to users who are lonely and want to share their lives and experiences with others.



  • Frustration: Frustration is a feeling of dissatisfaction and annoyance that makes users seek a better solution or outcome. For example, Google, Wikipedia, and Quora are products that cater to users who are frustrated and want to find answers to their questions or problems.



The key to creating a successful internal trigger is to understand your users and their emotional needs. You need to empathize with their pain points and provide a solution that alleviates their pain. You also need to create a strong association between your product and their internal trigger, so that whenever they feel the emotion, they think of your product as the solution.


Action




An action is the behavior that the user performs in response to the trigger. The action can be simple or complex, depending on the product and the user's motivation. The action should provide enough value to the user to justify the effort required.


The goal of an action is to deliver the variable reward that the user seeks. The action should be easy, convenient, and intuitive. The action should also match the user's expectations and abilities.


The Fogg Behavior Model




To understand how to design an effective action, Eyal uses the Fogg Behavior Model, developed by Stanford professor BJ Fogg. The Fogg Behavior Model states that for a behavior (B) to occur, three elements must be present at the same time: motivation (M), ability (A), and trigger (T). In other words:


B = MAT


Motivation is the user's desire to perform the behavior. Motivation can be influenced by six factors: pleasure/pain, hope/fear, social acceptance/rejection.


Ability is the user's capability to perform the behavior. Ability can be influenced by six factors: time, money, physical effort, mental effort, social deviance, non-routine.


Trigger is the cue or prompt that initiates the behavior. Trigger can be external or internal.


The Fogg Behavior Model suggests that to increase the likelihood of a behavior, you need to either increase the user's motivation, increase the user's ability, or provide a trigger at the right moment. Ideally, you want to do all three.


The six factors that increase ability




Eyal provides six practical ways to increase the user's ability to perform an action:



  • Simplify: Make the action as simple and easy as possible. Reduce the number of steps, clicks, fields, or choices required. For example, Amazon's 1-Click ordering feature allows users to buy products with a single click.



  • Train: Teach the user how to perform the action effectively. Provide clear instructions, feedback, hints, or tutorials. For example, Duolingo guides users through interactive lessons that teach them how to learn a new language.



  • Increase convenience: Make the action more convenient and accessible for the user. Reduce the friction and barriers that prevent the user from taking action. For example, Uber allows users to book a ride with a few taps on their smartphone.



  • Align with existing behaviors: Make the action compatible with the user's existing behaviors and habits. Leverage the user's familiarity and comfort with existing solutions. For example, Instagram allows users to take photos with their phone's camera and apply filters with a swipe.



  • Add incentives: Provide incentives or rewards for taking action. Increase the user's motivation by appealing to their desires and needs. For example, Dropbox offers free storage space for inviting friends or completing tasks.



  • Communicate value: Communicate the value and benefits of taking action. Increase the user's motivation by highlighting the positive outcomes and avoiding the negative ones. For example, Headspace shows users how meditation can improve their health and happiness.



Variable Reward




A variable reward is the outcome that the user receives after performing the action. The reward can be intrinsic or extrinsic, depending on the source and nature of the reward. The reward should provide enough value to satisfy the user's needs and expectations.


The goal of a variable reward is to increase the user's engagement and retention. The reward should be variable, meaning that it should be unpredictable and diverse. The reward should also be relevant, meaning that it should match the user's internal trigger and motivation.


The three types of variable rewards




Eyal identifies three types of variable rewards that appeal to different human needs and desires. They are:



  • Rewards of the tribe: These are rewards that satisfy our social needs, such as belonging, acceptance, recognition, and cooperation. For example, Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn provide rewards of the tribe by allowing users to connect with others, share their opinions, receive feedback, and join communities.



  • Rewards of the hunt: These are rewards that satisfy our primal needs, such as food, money, information, and resources. For example, Google, Wikipedia, and Quora provide rewards of the hunt by allowing users to search for answers, discover new facts, and learn new things.



  • Rewards of the self: These are rewards that satisfy our personal needs, such as mastery, competence, achievement, and self-expression. For example, Spotify, Netflix, and TikTok provide rewards of the self by allowing users to customize their playlists, watch their favorite shows, and create their own videos.



The role of dopamine in variable rewards




Variable rewards are effective because they trigger the release of dopamine in our brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that regulates our mood, motivation, and pleasure. Dopamine is also involved in learning and memory formation.


When we receive a variable reward, our brain releases a burst of dopamine that makes us feel good. This reinforces our behavior and motivates us to repeat it. However, when we receive a predictable or constant reward, our brain adapts to it and releases less dopamine over time. This reduces our satisfaction and interest.


Therefore, by making rewards variable and uncertain, we can keep users hooked and curious. We can also create a sense of anticipation and excitement that drives users to seek more rewards. This is why products like slot machines, video games, and social media are so addictive.


Investment




An investment is the work or effort that the user puts into the product after receiving the reward. The investment can be tangible or intangible, depending on the type and amount of work or effort required. The investment should provide enough value to justify the cost incurred by the user.


The goal of an investment is to increase the user's commitment and loyalty. The investment should also increase the likelihood of future use and trigger future cycles of the Hook Model. The investment should do one or more of the following:



  • Load the next trigger: The investment should create an external trigger that prompts the user to return to the product in the future. For example, WhatsApp allows users to send messages to their contacts, which creates notifications that bring them back to the app.



  • Store value: The investment should increase the value of the product for the user over time. For example, Evernote allows users to store notes, documents, and files in their account, which makes them more useful and organized.



  • Improve skill: The investment should improve the user's skill or ability to use the product better. For example, Duolingo allows users to practice their language skills with quizzes and games, which makes them more fluent and confident.



The benefits of user investment




User investment has several benefits for creating habits in users. They are:



  • Increased engagement: User investment increases user engagement by making them more active and involved in the product. Users who invest in a product are more likely to use it frequently and for longer periods of time.



  • Increased retention: User investment increases user retention by making them more attached and loyal to the product. Users who invest in a product are less likely to abandon it or switch to a competitor.



  • Increased advocacy: User investment increases user advocacy by making them more satisfied and enthusiastic about the product. Users who invest in a product are more likely to recommend it or share it with others.



The IKEA effect and the endowment effect




Two psychological phenomena that explain why user investment works are the IKEA effect and the endowment effect. The IKEA effect is the tendency to value something more when we have put effort into creating or assembling it. The endowment effect is the tendency to value something more when we own or possess it.


These effects make users more attached and loyal to products that they have invested in. They also make users less willing to part with or switch from products that they have invested in. For example, users who have spent hours building their profile, uploading their photos, and adding their friends on Facebook are less likely to delete their account or switch to another social network.


Conclusion




In this article, I have reviewed Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal and summarized its main points. I have also shared my opinion on the book and its ethical implications.


The main takeaways from the book




The main takeaways from the book are:



  • Habit-forming products are products that create habits in users by satisfying their psychological needs and emotions.



  • The Hook Model is a four-step process that successful companies use to create habit-forming products. The four steps are: Trigger, Action, Variable Reward, and Investment.



  • To apply the Hook Model to your product, you need to understand your users and their problems. You need to identify the internal triggers that motivate them to seek a solution, the external triggers that prompt them to use your product, the actions that they take to use your product, the variable rewards that they receive from using your product, and the investments that they make in your product.



  • To design effective triggers, you need to make them clear, relevant, timely, and actionable. You also need to match them with the user's internal trigger.



  • To design effective actions, you need to make them easy, convenient, and intuitive. You also need to increase the user's motivation and ability by using the Fogg Behavior Model.



  • To design effective variable rewards, you need to make them unpredictable and diverse. You also need to match them with the user's internal trigger and motivation. You can use three types of variable rewards: rewards of the tribe, rewards of the hunt, and rewards of the self.



To design effective investments, you need to make them valuable and meaningful. Y


About

Welcome to the group! You can connect with other members, ge...
bottom of page